Scholars Complete Dictionary that Translates Ancient Egyptian Language

Thirty-seven years in the making, scientists have finally completed a dictionary that translates Demotic Egyptian – a language that has been dead for over 1500 years.

Unlike hieroglyphs, which

was a more formal script used by the elite, Demotic Egyptian was the spoken and written language of everyday life in ancient Egypt from around 500 B.C. to A.D. 500.

The dictionary, called the Chicago Demotic Dictionary (available online), has recently been completed by researchers at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago and will “provide a wealth of information about the Egyptian-speaking population in Egypt” and is “an indispensable tool for reconstructing the social, political and cultural life of ancient Egypt during a fascinating period,” says Janet H. Johnson, an Egyptologist at the Institute.

The scholars were able to compile the 2000-page dictionary from Demotic script found on stone carvings, pottery pieces and papyrus. Demotic, hieroglyphs and Greek were the three languages found inscribed on the Rosetta Stone, which enabled the first Egyptologists to decode the hieroglyphic script.

Surprisingly, although the language has been extinct for over 1500 years, the dictionary reveals that several words live on today, such as “adobe” (passed on to Arabic and Spanish), and “ebony.”

Lost in Translation: 10 Words that are Untranslatable to English

If someone said to you “bury me”, how would you react? Shocked and puzzled most likely. But in the Middle East, “tu’burnee”, literally translated from Arabic to “bury me” is a term of endearment wishing you a longer life than the person who says it.

With over 250,000 words in the English

language, you would think there would be an equivalent word to convey this meaning. Indeed there are many words that are unique to a particular language and culture; while we may understand the general concept, no single English word exists for them – they are untranslatable.

Hygge: It’s amazing how one word can convey so much. This Danish word means relaxing with friends and family in an atmosphere of tranquility and coziness over food and drinks. Hygge is particularly associated with Christmas and summer evenings.

Uitwaaien: Need to escape the stress of your daily life and take a walk in the outdoors to unwind and clear your mind? The Dutch have a word for it: “Uitwaaien.”

Tartle: In Scottish it’s that awkward moment when you want to introduce someone and forget their name.

Jayus: In Indonesia, this word means hearing such a bad joke that you can’t help but laugh.

Ilunga: This word from the Tshiluba language spoken in south-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo is one of the most difficult words to translate. It means “a person who is ready to forgive any abuse the first time, to tolerate it a second time, but never a third time.”

Layogenic: In the Tagalog language of the Philippines, this word describes someone “who is only attractive from a distance.”

Tingo: If you travel to Easter Island, hopefully this is a word you will not hear! It means “borrowing things from a friend until nothing is left.”

Iktsuarpok: The Inuit use this word to describe the action of going outside to check if anyone is coming.

Sobremesa: In Spanish it refers to the time spent lingering at the table after a meal, chatting, drinking coffee and liqueurs or watching TV.

Schadenfreude: In German this word refers to a person who takes pleasure in others’ misfortunes.